The paper proposes a novel vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs)-based traffic light (TL) scheduling scheme for reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles and improving the safety of road intersections where yellow-light-dilemma (YLD)-related accidents frequently occur. The proposed scheme uses adaptive TL scheduling and optimal speed advisory methods to increase traffic throughput and reduce CO2 emissions of traveling vehicles. In addition, the proposed scheme employs various distributed protocols and algorithms to tackle the YLD problem, which has not been addressed by previous works in the literature. When the YLD problem arises at a signalized intersection, vehicles in heavily-weighted dilemma zones are provided extending yellow signal time to stop or pass through the intersection. A mathematical analysis proves that the proposed protocols and algorithms have low communication overhead and low computational complexity which are equal to O(N). Furthermore, four simulation works are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. Outstanding results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme outperforms other existing approaches by approximately 81.9% in terms of the average performance.
Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8604037