In this letter, empirical with analytical methodology to decode-and-forward (DF) packets over aboveground-to-underground-to-aboveground (AG2UG2AG) systems in wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) environment is corroborated. MIMO-Ultrawideband radio frequency (RF) links were empirically characterized and exploited using Microbit moisture-measuring white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in different volumetric water content (VWC) and orientation depths. Relay-routing and selection using novel maximum available channel capacity (MACC) technique was accomplished. Simulation performance demonstrates relay-routing and selection impacts on the channel conditions, overall outage probability, transmission power and energy consumption, without depreciated aggregate system throughput.
Index Terms—Sensor networks, microbit, MIMO-ultrawideband (UWB), radio frequency (RF) channels, VNA-8722ES device, wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs).
Manuscript submitted November 23, 2020.
Manuscript revised February 5, 2021.
Accepted February 18, 2021.
Date of publication February 22, 2021.
Date of current version March 18, 2021.
Electronic ISSN: 2475-1472
Digital Object Identifier (10.1109/LSENS.2021.3060826)