This paper proposes a routing protocol established upon the IEEE 802.15.4a that enhances the delay and energy efficiency in Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using two-hop information. Owing to the miniaturized form and non-rechargeable nature, nodes deployed in WSN suffer from resource constraints which affects its performance in terms of delay and energy consumption. Motivated by this, the proposed scheme exploits two-hop information to improve the performance of WSNs. First, a robust metric function known as the potential relay information (PRI) is formulated. Unlike other metric functions, the PRI leverages the residual energy, distance and delay and assesses the link quality of neighbor nodes to ascertain that the selected next-hop forwarder delivers data packets to the destination with the highest possible quality of service (QoS). Second, a preemptive neighborhood state index (NSI) algorithm which enable nodes view two-hops down its routing path to make good forwarding decisions that minimizes delay and balances load traffic across the system is devised. Last, a proactive feedback technique is integrated to simplify the update of two-hop information in order to address the excessive pursuing of energy consumption resulting from overhead packets. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed scheme and demonstrates improvements in network lifetime, packet delivery ratio (PDR), end-to-end delay and energy consumption over the compared algorithms. Moreover, the results reflect QoS which supports real timeliness.
Keywords: End-to-end delay; Link-rates; Neighborhood state index; Potential relay information; Real-time; Residual energy; Two-hop information; WSN.
Received 8 April 2020,
Revised 26 December 2020,
Accepted 3 February 2021,
Available online 19 February 2021.