The propagation of sound in the sea is a remarkably complex phenomenon. The speed of sound in seawater depends on temperature, depth, position, season of the year and salinity1 and these factors combine in the sea to give a time-varying sound structure that is inhomogeneous both vertically and horizontally. In addition, the attenuation of sound in the sea has a strong frequency dependence.
In spite of these complications, sound is still the main means of exploration and communication in the sea, and the detection and processing of sound signals plays a very important role in the use of the sea both for military purposes and in other applications such as depth sounders, sh detection and divers' equipment. The science dealing with the underwater sound is called sonar which is an
acronym for sound navigation and ranging. The use of sonar was greatly advanced for military purposes during the two world wars.
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