In this study, we propose a clustering algorithm to enhance the performance of wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs). In each cluster, a multi-level hierarchical structure can be applied to reduce energy consumption. In addition to the cluster head, some nodes can be selected as intermediate nodes (INs). Each IN manages a subcluster that includes its neighbors. INs aggregate data from members in its subcluster, then send them to the cluster head. The selection of intermediate nodes aiming to optimize energy consumption can be considered high computational complexity mixed-integer linear programming. Therefore, a heuristic lowest energy path searching algorithm is proposed to reduce computational time. Moreover, a channel assignment scheme for sub-clusters is proposed to minimize interference between neighboring subclusters, thereby increasing aggregated throughput. Simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme can prolong network lifetime in WSANs.
Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7324146